assembly language programming tutorial for beginners

in the early days, when an application was written in assembly language, it had to fit in a small amount of memory and run as efficiently as possible on slow processors. it receives n from ecx and returns eax as the nth fibonacci number calculated: a basic rule in assembly language programming is that if you can use a register, don’t use a variable. in assembly code, you definitely can make use of the stack to do assignment previous = current, as in fibonaccibymemory. if you forget to make push and pop in pair, an error could happen, especially in a conditional jump when the procedure returns. as for the last ary1, you may want to remember its size in byte and the number of elements like this: it is correct but not preferred because of using two variables. to construct a loop, try to make all your loop contents in the loop body. a good practice is to think of the loop counter ecx as read-only. the previously mentioned loop instruction should behave like the for loop, because you have to initialize a known loop counter in ecx. the invoke directive gives the form of a procedure with a parameter-list, as you experienced in high level languages. to demonstrate this, let’s create a procedure to write month, day, and year from an object of the win32 systemtime structure.

for an indirect operand pointing to an object, you can’t use the offset operator to get the member’s address, because offset only can take an address of a variable defined in the data segment. we can do the same thing in assembly language with dword ptr, which is just similar to an address casting to 4-byte dword, the unsigned int type. the following is such an example to increment each element in a dword array: as the first parameter pary is a dword address, so ptr dword is used as a parameter type. a signed comparison is determined by of and the sign flag sf as shown in the following examples: as we know, the div instruction is for unsigned to perform 8-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit integer division with the dividend ax, dx:ax, or edx:eax respectively. the following is a procedure with a parameter n to calculate nth fibonacci number returned in eax. also without a stack frame, i have to create global variables mpre and mcur on the data segment. when calling an assembly procedure from a c/c++ function, both must be consistent to use the same calling and naming conventions, so that a linker can resolve references to the caller and its callee. in order to call procstd_callwithparameterlist from a c function, the prototype should be like this: notice that __stdcall is a must to declare this time. the invoke directive automatically generates the prologue and epilogue code for you with ebp and pushes arguments in the format of ebp offset. only difference is the positive offset to ebp here: because of withargumentpassed proc with a parameter-list, masm also generates the prologue and epilogue with ebp representations automatically. via assembly code, you can get closer to the heart of the machine, such as registers and memory.

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