the training within industry (twi) service was created by the united states department of war, running from 1940 to 1945 within the war manpower commission. the program continued post-war in europe and asia, where it aided reconstruction. in addition, the program became the foundation of the toyota production system and the dod resourced open source management system (3.1). each program had introductory programs called “appreciation sessions” that were used to sell the programs to top management and introduce the programs to middle management of a company.  the twi service also developed a number of “staff only” training programs to support staff development and to improve the implementation success. there were several groups that had an impact in the expansion of the twi programs around the world – us state department, us army, british ministry of labour, international labor organization (ilo) and standard oil.
the british ministry of labour actively promoted the twi programs, listing 65 countries in addition to the us and england where twi was known to be in use as of 1959. it was the later work by the ilo using the standard oil translations and re-translation efforts that established the twi programs in europe.  although the twi program funding for application of the programs in the usa by the government ended in 1945, the us government did fund the introduction to the war-torn nations of europe and asia. the director of one of the district offices established twi, inc., and was hired by the us government to provide twi training in japan. it was especially well received in japan, where twi formed the basis of the kaizen culture in industry. thus, twi was the forerunner of what is today regarded as a japanese creation.
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